No. Only if you had the volume turned too high and there was clipping would you have damaged the speakers. It might sound awful but don't worry.
10 responses Add your response
One of the easiest ways to blow a woofer is with a high volume ground buzz -- loose RCA connections can do this very easily as I discovered to my cost with a pair of Magico V3s -- one reason to avoid those "twist to tighten" "collect chucking " WBT plugs, I've had too many where the shield has gotten loose
The static you heard is no different in frequency range from the loud static heard between stations when running through the FM dial on a tuner. Speakers are meant to produce sound at rather loud volumes. What happened was that you were startled when you heard the sound. But your speakers weren't startled - they just did what they were supposed to do - and were not damaged in any way.