The following permitted sound levels are published by American Occupational Safety & Health Administration as thresholds for safe “listening”:

hours a day           intensity

8                             90 dB

6                             92 dB

4                             95 dB

3                             97 dB

2                             100 dB

1.5                           102 dB

1                             105 dB

0.5                           110 dB

0.25 or less           115 dB

Read it like “1 hour or more at an overcooked death metal concert can be dangerous for your health”. That is why firing a rifle again and again, at its 160dB blasts, for 3 minutes without any protective aid may not be a good idea.

We, audiophiles, do not need measuring devices to check whether or not we are over the limit – within the restricted area we have for our hobby- the listening the room- it is unlikely that we listen to our music at the levels exceeding 90dB. The sound waves especially at lower octaves develop differently from what they do in the large halls and open spaces, they mix with early reflections and reverberations, making music requiring less watts to play really loud and preventing us to go over the top. It is good to know that increasing the overall loudness at home by 3dB requires double the power of the preceding wattage – even though the perception is very small and for some almost unnoticeable.

I use a ratshack digital meter from my listening position, and, though I am very familiar with how loud it is, there is some music that I occasionally check to ensure I don't exceed a self-imposed 80 dB average SPL limit. That's plenty loud for me and I can hear and feel everything I need to. After several hours of listening at this level, my ears are still fresh and there is no feeling of fatigue.
I'm more concerned about hearing damage from riding a sports bike than when cranking the stereo. So much so that I wear ear buds whenever I get on my bikes.
I have hearing loss and ringing due to abusing my ears in my youth....and some in my not-so-youth.

I now wear hearing protection for everything, lawn mower, shop-vac, all power tools other than a drill, tractor. I keep hearing protection around everywhere in the form of muffs or plugs.

When I shoot rifles or pistols I wear both.

I wear soft ear plugs at rock shows,