Why 300Bs?

I often see these tubes mentioned with a great deal of reverence, but have never heard an amp that uses them. What is it about this tube in particular that commands such admiration (and premium price) over other tube types? How is its high frequency extension? Why so big for such low power output?
Simplicity, purity, linear, euphonic and most importantly: class-A operation. Depends on how much power you need, it is probably the same reason why folks go after other SET output tube amps like KT88(in triode mode), 845, 211, px25, 2A3, and 45.
The cheaper version would be EL84 SET which also sound quite good too. In most cases, the bigger the tube the more power and more stability you get.
You need to get out more often to hear one. Start with the famous Jadis 300B amps then listen to these Chinese clones. In my opinion, you'll notice that all 300B amps are not create equal.
Call Kevin Hayes of VAC -- he'll tell you everything you ever wanted to know about 300B output tubes.
Well, the 300B has been around a long time, and is well-known to be a very good sounding and very linear tube. Part of the "reverance" about this tube belongs to the SET circuit designs in which it is usually found. SET amps are particulary coherent sounding, due to certain design characteristics of that configuration. You are now finding that some people prefer 2A3 or 45 over the 300B in SET amps. One of the "revered" characteristics of the 300B in SET amps, is the 300B seems to have a lot of "meat on the bones", meaning it is somewhat fat sounding and has a healthy bottom end.

Regarding your question about the "high frequency performance", the 300B and other triodes have great extension into the high end. The problem arises in the output transformers that are used in these SET amps. If the output transformer is not sufficiently good, the high-end will be rolled-off. This is not a problem with the tube, but with the output transformers. If you get a 300B amp with really good output transformers(which are expensive) and has a good circuit design overall, then the frequency extension is fine.
I think it's really just SETs in general. They must be heard to understand. Either you'll love their natural sound or you'll come away thinking "I don't get it." As for me, the jury's still out on SETs. But I probably haven't heard my magical combination yet. I loved the DIYHiFi 300B amps with Omega speakers. And the Cain&Cain Abbys with Audio Note 300B were nice too.

The 300B amps (or lower powered SET amps in general) are often paired with higher efficiency and high sensitivity loudspeakers. The most common are simplier single driver (no crossover) speakers and single or multi-driver horns. Some feel the SET topology coupled with high sensitivity speakers allows for the ebb and flow of music with its subtle nuances to be felt. So far the best example I've heard is Tpsonic's 845 SET with modified 9ohm Gallos. But that's a different animal than a 300B.

No I don't understand why the 300B in particular commands the price it does compared to other tubes or even other SETs. It might have something to do with the Japanese audiophiles who some credit with restarting the SET resurgence. It might be the modest power (compared with flea power 2a3 and 45 tubes) and the fact that higher power 572 and 845 tubes don't have the famous history that the 300B does. Many others have a different view. I just see the 300B as a another lowered powered tube. But then again I don't have much experience with that tube, or a lot of tubes, or even audio in general. So weigh all of that when you read my opinion.