A very good start would be in the Audiogon archives. There is a wealth of information right there. Then do some searches on Google, under turntable design and stuff like that. You will turn up alot of articles about what a turntable should do and what it shouldn't do. Also some ideas on which ones are good and which ones aren't. Then you have to get some and learn about using them and listening for yourself, to get experience. There is no substitute for that. It's sort of like reading a book on the Kama Sutra. There is a vast amount of knowledge that can never be conveyed on the written page.
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Here's a great little information resource pamphlet to get your started. http://www.merrillaudio.com/setupbooklet.html
Once you learn the fundamantals then go back & read it again for a deeper understanding. George Merrill begins with the basics, but there's a lot more than that here, much to his credit.