It can be both but moStly imperfections in the CD that results in different results in multiple reads used to verify the data when there is no accuraterip data from prior rips by others available for reference. To get an accurate rip in that case, data is reread many times until similar results are produced more than once. That can take a long time depending on how many units on the CD are affected by imperfections. You can bypass the rereading that occurs and tell accurate rip to accept less perfect none validated data if desired in order to make things go faster, but there could be audible artifacts in the rip as a result.
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