I honestly don't know the answer, but it would seem to me that it would be based upon playing the track versus whatever the volume setting is .
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I had posted this info before that I found somewhere??
Of the streaming sites Tidal is one of the most generous companies as musical artists make about $0.0003 per play. That was info from 2017. Amazing, Napster had top payouts at $0.0167 to $0.0190 and Tidal was 2nd. I guess after Napster was sued from the major record labels and users could not steal music any longer, some balance was brought make into music making by artists and music enjoyment by consumers.
This was a response to someone stating that MQA was going to kill the music recording industry, more or less. I do not know about royalties that the companies make, but I had noticed that in/around that time music sharing companies and projects such as Gnutella, Freenet, Kazaa, BearShare, LimeWire, Scour, Grokster, Madster, and eDonkey2000, were allowing consumers to bypass buying artist's music and THAT WAS KILLING MUSIC. Later many of these were brought down or changed due to copyright issues. Nowadays streaming and recording companies are making money and again artists are making money. I am sure the technology will continue to change and many, many artists will bypass the middleman and find a way to make, market, and sell their own music without many, if any, help from recording companies or audio sites. Many are doing this now.