You'd have to buy a seperate phono preamp and plug your turntable into that (price range from $100/$200 up to thousands and thousands). The phono preamp will output a line-level signal which you can plug into any of the tape, CD, video, VCR, AUX, tuner, etc. jacks.
Simplest. If your old pre has phono in, use it and run from Tape out to an input on new receiver. I'm doing it with my old Mac c30 to a soundstage. I'm told good older pre's have fine phono stages since there was no CD.