Noise when playing vinyl

I just bought a used Rogue Audio Sphinx integrated amplifier which appears to be in very good shape, and connected a Micro Seiki DD30 turntable to it which I obtained used in eBay. The turntable seems to be in good shape, and works fine. However, when I first turn it on and start playing an album, there seems to be a rather loud low frequency noise which makes the woofers in the speakers vibrate wildly, and even makes the needle skip. I turn down the volume, wait a few seconds, and then can resume playing without further problems. Anyone have any idea what is causing this and how I can repair it? Thank you all in advance!
A little test. Without the turntable spinning, place the cartridge on a record as if you were going to play it. Slowly advance the volume control. If, at some point, you hear howling out of the speakers, turn the volume control down very quickly. Post back into this thread with the results of this test.

If this happens, you have acoustic feedback. There are two paths for acoustic feedback. Structure borne means thorough the stand that the turntable is mounted on, and air borne means through the air.
Its sounds to me like a major cartridge tonearm mismatch. Try a Cartridge that the tonearm likes. This is most likely why you are having so much woofer movement.
Do you know if your TT has a built in phono preamp? If you are not sure, plug it into a line level input and see what it sounds like.
Thank you all for your prompt replies! Here's what I've got so far:Zd542, the turntable does not have a built in preamp. When I connected it to a line level input, there was minimal sound with the volume turned up. Mattmiller, I don't know the model number of the tonearm, but it is the one that the turntable originally came with. I have an Ortofon Blue MM cartridge installed, and, aside from that occasional noise, it actually sounds pretty good. Viridian, I also did as you suggested and indeed the woofers shake and the noise returns as soon as I pass about the halfway point on the volume knob, so it is consistent with acoustic feedback. So, where do we go from here? Thank you all again for all the help!
You need to move and isolate your turntable away from your speakers.
I am a Micro Seiki guy and that cartridge is a very nice match for the tonearm of the DD30.

There are two paths for acoustic feedback, structure borne, which means that the structure that you are putting the turntable on is inducing the feedback, usually through the floor, or airborne feedback which simply means that your turntable is too close to a speaker.

Let's take the first one first. What type of structure do you have your turntable on? If it is heavy, like a dresser or large shelving unit then a good experiement is to try it on a very light table, like a TV tray table and see if that helps. Likewise, you can try things like tennis balls cut in half for feet or even a partially inflated inner tube with a piece of plywood on top of it. KAB Acoustics also makes a low frequency filter - what we used to call a "rumble filter" that may work as well.

If it is airborne, you have but one solution and that is to move the turntable to a place where it is no longer excited by the loudspeakers.
Guys, thank you again! Viridian, I placed felt pads under the heavy entertainment center that I have the TT on, and I also placed felt pads on the metal feet that my Totem speakers have. That has solved the problem! Which is a good thing, because I could not move the speakers to any other location. Thanks so much again!!!
Keep the baby, Faith.