The fluid in tweeters may dry out after about 15-20 years. Woofers can last longer - 30 years or so. It all depends on the quality. Of course one hour of serious abuse can ruin a speaker at any time.
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Speaker electrical characteristics change as the drivers are heated.
Maybe a heated speaker....say running 50% of 'redline' for an hour or so may be even easier to damage.
Caps in crossovers also deteriorate with age. Letting them just sit in a closet is probably worse than running them daily, if not electrically abused in the process.
Vintage speakers were made a lot better and will last a lifetime....I love my sansui sp-5500 horn speakers with cryoed inside wires and all crossover parts cryoed!..Now all I need to do is put some of Alan Maher's CBF crystals on the crossover parts. Someone over on the audio asylum forum said these crystals works great inside the shells of a ac plugs and ac IEC connectors. He said it improved audio and video A LOT!...They now sell the crystals in bulk by the pound!
I have a pair 25 year old Wharfedale Diamonds. I had to do a little glue repair on the dust caps. The tweeters look like ones you could replace for $6 bucks- for the pair! No one can believe how good they sound.
Foam deteriorates, some people replace caps, but old cared for speakers should last a long long time.
One of my pairs of speakers is Celestion SL 700s from the 1980s. The Zu website claims a life expectancy for their Essence speakers of "Lifetime on cabinet, 40 years plus on Zu260FRD/G4, 15 years on ribbon foil (serviceable)" and for their new Soul Superfly speakers of "100 years plus cabinet, and drivers, including the Zu260FRD/G4 HO; even in direct sunlight."