As one of the experienced hobbyists in our community. Everyone here is going to GIVE you THEIR advice and what works for them and their TASTE. You are going to have negative and positive advise given. I suggest you purchase anything. Do some research first, then go audition a particular product and component first within your budget and go to a variety of audio stores from mid grade to high end if you can and see what you can afford and shop online and elsewhere if you can save money for the same products. Most in audiogon who purchase used items already know what they want already experienced such products and most are EXPERIENCED that have already went thru SUCCESS and FAILURES in setting up their systems. You have to match whatever loudspeaker design you which to use with an amplifier/preamplifier or receiver that will have similar characterisics and that is one of the JUNGLE or MYRIAD of problems you are going to come across as a newbe. For example if you are the get a loudspeaker that primarily has a 4 ohm load and often fluctuates to a lower load, you may not want to use a standard amplifier design such as class AB that's design for an 8 ohm resistance load, although many amplifiers are switchable but not necessarily designed to best perform at either load. Some amplifiers perform better in a particular load such as 4 ohm load, you go by the manufacturer's intended design. Tubes, you need to get advise from experienced tube owners to get a jist on proper tube sound. Most into tubes are purist and use only high grade components and parts to set up a system. You may have to invest more, though some tubes are inexpensive, it just depends on what you're willing to invest. The types of tubes you use in tubed component is going to make a difference between night and day on many tube components, so get advice from many not few tube hobbyists.
When purchasing turntables, there are many designs but two types of drive system, belt or direct drive. For stability,analog enthusiasts check for VIBRATION CONTROL, meaning a heavier base, platter and foot designs on the table. Your tonearms is a major factor of how your table is going to sound, so proper matching of designs would be advised. Again, get advise from those who primarily use analog for their source more so then someone who uses digital as their primary source. Ortofon makes decent cartridges but primarily for dj applications. For audiophile use, there are many but grado, shure, sumiko, audio technica are good examples. moving magnet or moving coil you have to decide which is better for you. One is low output, the other is high output. Moving coil requires a step up transformer and both are different in reproducing sound from the table.
Loudspeaker, there are strengths and weaknesses on all the designs. You would have to choose based on music taste between a dynamic or box design, a planar, an electrostat, a push pull and varying combination of drivers such as horn, ribbons, dome etc. paper vs. polyproplene or kevlar. Different designs such as linesource, CLS or coherent line source, coaxial, bipolar, omnipolar, multi driver vs. single driver. Loudspeaker choice is probably the most difficult choice due to the nature of audio reproduction with the myriad of designs. Some designs do not work well on some room environments but work well on others. some designs can only work based on room acoustics where as others, do not require the help of the surroundings. It would be wise to AUDITION as many types that is pleasing to your ears. CDP's or compact disc players, the transport and types of IC's used on the player is very important and a well designed servo system such as the laser pickup. DACS are very important when purchasing a good CDP solid state or tube. Everyone in this category usually try to give you advice on what they like or have experienced.
I suggest whatever you decide to get if it's a medium grade component and there is no feedback stabilization design in the amplifier, you may need a TWEAK such as dakiom feedback stabilizer which i highly recommend to those who do not have a high end amplifier, CDP setup costing in the thousands. The use of sound processors is usually beneficial for most midgrade systems and some high end but not necessary in most ultra high end gear. I would recommend the use of psycho acoustics such as bbe, sonic holography, sonic maximizers between your preamp and amp etc. If you are getting all tubes, in some cases the dakioms, but you might want to disclude sound processors in those chain because of added distortion and enhancements. BEWARE of EXPENSIVE cables, no need to spend more money on cables that's worth more then your amplifier. SIGNAL cable or blue jeans cable would be sufficient for many midgrade systems or even high end. Some cables do make a difference but not that much, it's really your major components that determines the sound quality. Lots of snake oil in the cable companies and power conditioner companies.
Unless you have a dedicated and treated listening room, the use of high end cables, conditioners, spikes and cones, and room treatments, panels, pads etc. are a waste of money unless you invested on a mega system that is designed to require such set up. For the most part, just your basic gold end interconnects would do.